How to start backend development? Most popular question among aspiring backend development enthusiasts. Backend developers mostly deal with data, business logic, and the efficient retrieval of data from a variety of sources. The list doesn’t end here. There are a number of things that a good backend developer is expected to be adept at apart from the backend development languages. This roadmap tried to cover some of them. And the current guide will help with the relevant backend development resources and tools.
Internet and basic frontend knowledge
Mozilla Developer Network(MDN) docs is a great start, if you are trying to start taking the web development path. I’ve given some important links below but you can explore the entirety, there is a ton of information that is up to the point and well explained.
Although the below resources are not for backend developers, some of you might be interested in some frontend frameworks that guys in your company are using.
OS and basic machine usage skills
Networks and communication
Backend programming languages and frameworks
Although it is not neccessary that you learn every language in the world, it is good to have skills in at least one compiled, scripting language and choose one for a paradigm. Languages are essential tools for programmers and they deserve a section in backend development roadmap and resources list.
You won’t write clean code on your first iteration most of the time. Also, if you happen to be in a situation where you lost your code due to variety of reasons, then version control systems got you covered. Git and Mercurial are among the most popular version control systems out there. You should definitely learn Git. Below are some resources where you can start.
Databases(relational) and ORM
As we discussed already, backend developers mostly deal with data. Hence, it is essential that you learn several ways to work with the same. Relational databases were the goto for every use case. But, that has changed over the years, and several purpose built databases took it’s place. Initially you should be able to interact with the relational databases using SQL, or an ORM. But, as you get more comfortable, you should explore the database internals like how indexes work, how joins will effect performance, transactions, isolation levels, and designing for availabilty and consistency etc.
NoSQL databases came into picture to solve several problems of relational databases like schema rigidity, extensibilty, scalability etc. There are several databases in this space. I will list down some of them and resources to learn about them.
MongoDB from it’s CTO
Advanced design patterns for DynamoDB(or any NoSQL in general)
Single table design - DynamoDB
Why Dynamo scales where relational databases don’t
Different take on NoSQL vs SQL
Intro to Apache Cassandra, essentials
LevelDB - Written at Google by Sanjay and Jeff
RocksDB - LevelDB fork maitained by Facebook
There is another class of databases which are a modern version of relational databases built for high scale, resilency, and cloud. There take principles from best of both worlds, relational and non-relational
There is another class of purpose built databases which puts relations in the data, forefront. These databases exploit the related nature of the data and help answer complex queries easily. These databases are the goto when you want to answer queries like friends of friends, what do my friends like, efficiently. Below are some resources where you can learn about these.
APIs and authentication
Web security fundamentals
Web application security should not be an after thought. Many developers focus much on the application logic, since the code is generally audited by a security researcher for an initial release. But, developers should write code keeping security in perspective always. The first link below is more relevant to the Rails ecosystem, but it will cover some general security best practices. Be sure to check it out.
Securing Rails applications
SSL and TLS
Discussion on SSL and TLS
Virtual private clouds explained
Cross site request forgery
OWASP attacks list
Cross Origin Resource Sharing(CORS)
Content security policy
HTTP Basic Auth
Cookies and security
If you are working with
node.js, you can take advantage of
npm audit to find out and fix known vulnerabilites in npm modules.
System design/Distributed systems
Clean code and best practices
Knowing how to accomplish a task is only a part of the bigger picture. But, developing a skill to bet the best job at something makes all the difference. For example, Apple products are arguably the best in the market because they are intentionally well crafted.
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